In today's world, with increasingly fierce market competition and rapid technological change, economic globalization, enterprise and social informatization are coming to us.The intellectualization, integration, digitization and greening of products and technologies have become the trend of development and important means of competition.Economic globalization is not universally agreed, and opponents are both developed and developing countries.But regardless of people's subjective will, economic globalization has actually become an irreversible trend.We can't help but pay attention to its direction.
The main representations of globalization can be summed up as follows: global mergers and acquisitions, the upgrading and transfer of international industrial institutions, globalization of finance, global procurement and supporting, global design and manufacturing.
In the 90 s, global mergers and acquisitions amount, up from $1990 in 11.3 trillion to $1998 in 26.2 trillion, the amount of merger and acquisition of wide scope, the proportion of large, multinational case of the high, is the recent didn't appear in the international economic relations characteristic, it is the logical result of the globalization process.In previous years, the world automobile industry bought and became a trend, people still remember.The trend is not over, and it has been rolled over to China.The result of buying and expanding a number of multinational companies.Currently, about 5.3 global multinational company, they play a leading role in the world economy, accounting for about 40% of the world's gross domestic product (GDP), 50 to 60% of the global trade volume, 60 to 70% of global technology trade, 90% of global foreign direct investment, 80% of technology patents, 90% of the production technology.
It is the adjustment and transfer of international industrial structure as well as the transfer of the world manufacturing base.His power was too great to be pursued.Industrial structures in industrialized countries have been upgraded to high-technology, high-value-added industries, while low-value-added, resource-consuming industries have shifted to developing countries.Industry to achieve industrial upgrading in developed countries the same time, also the bottom part of the high technology, high value-added industries in OEM way transferred to developing countries, in part at a comparative disadvantage, are taking global procurement, developing countries receive orders from active, positive, looking for opportunities.
In the process of transnational mergers and acquisitions and international industrial transfer, two other representations of globalization: global sourcing and supporting, global design and manufacturing, and corresponding formation.The globalization of finance is the inevitable result of the above representation.Thus, market competition is expanding and becoming increasingly fierce around the world.
Economic globalization has driven the development of information technology and informatization, and the development of information technology and informatization has accelerated the process of globalization.The operation of multinational companies, without the global information network to support, is simply unthinkable;Global design and manufacturing, thanks to information and networks, is not only achieved but also works 24 hours a day;Global sourcing and supporting facilities can only be carried out effectively with the help of information technology.The informatization changed people's time and air view, obviously accelerated the rhythm, greatly improved the efficiency.The original working style, thinking habits and management concepts have been greatly impacted.Informationization has become a very important means of globalization, and globalization is the catalyst of informatization.Informationization has also reduced the consumption of resources, showing humans a new way of doing things on a planet that is increasingly scarce.
Globalization and informationization have brought about great changes in the world manufacturing industry, and also put forward realistic demands for China's new industrialization path.
It can be recalled that from the 20th century to the 21st century, there has been a series of great changes in the manufacturing industry around us.Traditional manufacturing, characterized by mechanization and automation, has become a modern manufacturing industry integrated with information technology and high technology.Manufacturing technology as the center of the 20th century, the professional division of labor, production organization is according to the functional division of fixed working group, enterprise organization structure is a pyramid structure, order operation ways.The manufacturing industry of the 21st century is people-centric, implements the fuzzy division of labor, mastering many skills while specializing in one, the working group has also become a "team" with independent management function, enterprise organizational structure has been generally adopted to more rapid response to market "flat" and "network", "parallel job.Manufacturing in the 21st century enterprise strategy has not scale economy, but a quick response to market and technological innovation, enterprise's quality from conformance quality to satisfaction with quality, enterprises will pay more attention to the environmental impact of product and manufacturing process.Companies began attaches great importance to the intellectual property rights, from past only to provide products to provide the solution to solve the problem, mode of production is no longer with the mass production of the same breed, but customized production according to customer requirements.The organization mode of the enterprise gradually from the "featured" into "dumbbell", strengthen the research and development of original weak and sales service of the two head, through mass customization and networked manufacturing in pursuit of their own costs minimization and maximize the value of customers.
Along the direction of this change, the future characteristics of manufacturing industry are: the market competition of globalization;Large information and wide distribution;Emphasizing environmental protection and saving resources;High user demand and personalization;Accelerating scientific and technological change;Knowledge in products and technology is dense and so on.It can be expected that the future manufacturing model will be: small batch, multi-variety, high quality, low cost, short development period, flexible production and friendly environment.
In the face of this kind of change, in the context of globalization, China will accomplish the task of industrialization and only take the path of new-type industrialization.In his report on the sixteenth national congress of the communist party of China (CPC), jiang noted that "industrialization is still a daunting historical task in China's modernization drive.Informationization is an inevitable choice for China to accelerate its industrialization and modernization.Stick to drive industrialization by informationization, industrialization promotes informatization, out of a high technological content, good economic benefits, low resources consumption, little environmental pollution, human resources give full play to the new industrialization path."
China cannot carry out its industrialization faster than the industrialized countries, and it cannot follow the path that industrialized countries have already traveled.And China face huge pressure from population, resources, environment, take a new road to industrialization is the inevitable choice, informatization is an important part of the global environment take a new road to industrialization and reflect.The enormous pressure of the population, we have already felt, and the pressure is increasing.In 2030, China's population will reach 15.1 to 1.61 billion, with a new labor force of around 10 million per year.In many industries of the national economy, it is possible to provide such huge employment space and relieve the pressure of employment. I am afraid that only the pressure of manufacturing resources is increasing.China's water resources are in short supply, and the arable land resources are strained.China's per capita water supply is expected to fall to 1706 ~ 1819m3 by 2030, with per capita arable land below 1 mu, while China's grassland resources are severely overloaded with a rate of 48%.China's mineral resources are relatively short, and most resources are well below the world average, and the highest proportion of mineral resources is only 58% of the world's per capita level.There are also significant gaps in our energy resources.
China's environmental protection situation is becoming more and more serious.The problems of reducing arable land, soil erosion, desertification, acid rain and urban sewage treatment are becoming more and more prominent.With the increasing of China's economic scale, the people's material and cultural living standards have been continuously improved, and the consumption of mechanical and electrical products has increased dramatically.Every year our country electrical appliances, cars and batteries and other mechanical and electrical products production and ownership are increased significantly, according to rough statistics, at present, refrigerators, washing machines, TV sets and computers in our country in 5 million or so, scrap cars in a sharp increase in scrap also has a huge pressure on the environment.
Under these three pressures, China's machinery manufacturing industry has a difficult task.On the one hand, we should take the new road of industrialization, and the industry should be constantly upgraded.On the other hand, it is necessary to provide equipment and conditions for the whole economy to be equipped with high technological content, good economic benefits, low resource consumption and low environmental pollution.Informationization can be said to be the only way to improve China's machinery manufacturing industry.
To promote industrialization with information technology is to improve the functional level of machinery manufacturing products with information technology;Improve manufacturing process automation;Improving manufacturing labor productivity;Integration of resources within and between enterprises.Industrialization promotes informationization, which is based on the informationization of manufacturing industry.Manufacturing is also a big market for informatization;Manufacturing industry provides equipment for informatization;Manufacturing is also part of the informationization.Under the environment and the trend of globalization, China's machinery manufacturing industry must take informatization trend, otherwise, not only difficult to promote industry, and may completely lose the initiative in the process of globalization.Because of the great changes in manufacturing, the conditions for future manufacturing success are: integrated enterprise management systems;Fully integrated and optimized design and manufacturing;Flexibility and distributed production;Intelligent process and equipment;Technology, manufacturing and management systems are plug-and-play and science-based manufacturing.Corresponding to the function of the product characteristics in the new century to the development of ecology, informationization, individuality and limit, structure characteristics to the integration and modularization, modularization and standardization development, gradually to knowledge-based development process, distribution, collaborative, virtualization, globalization, innovative and customized development.Face more and more complicated, the products of personalized, intelligent and ecological requirements, in addition to the product design process based on knowledge innovation, intelligent and globalization, more flexible, distribution, co-ordinated and parallelization.The methods and means are to adopt CAD/CAE, network, intelligence and virtualization.In the globalization environment, the informationization of machinery manufacturing is imminent.In the process of informatization, the enterprise through the global network, with the help of information technology and network technology, cooperate in areas around the world, to share knowledge and information, and optimization of manufacturing resources, realize the networked manufacturing, in the most economical way to create and accumulate wealth.Only in this way, can the enterprise win the market, win the competition, and constantly improve its competitiveness.The important content of informationization of machinery manufacturing is enterprise informatization.Manufacturing enterprises to improve competitiveness in the 21st century, in addition to the transformation mechanism, technology innovation, strengthen management and asset restructuring work outside, still must pass the enterprise information to become a stronger enterprise competitive.
Machinery manufacturing enterprise informatization is to make full use of information technology and other high and new technical reform and improve the traditional mechanical manufacturing enterprises, in the whole life cycle of mechanical products, the wide application of information technology, information resources and the environment, to realize information integration and sharing, and optimize the enterprise resource allocation and efficient operation, thus improve the economic efficiency and competitiveness.Thus, the content of enterprise informatization can be divided into four aspects:
The first level: integrating information technology and computer technology into mechanical products to improve the quality, functional level, technical content and added value of the product itself.For example in design and manufacture of mechanical products, integrated into the sensor, microcontroller, microprocessor, PLC, NC, digital communication interface and modern information technology such as laser and high and new technology, to form the mechanical and electrical integration products, and technology integration of the product.
Second level: using computer to realize automatic control of manufacturing process.In the process of production using intelligent numerical control (NC) machining and robot technology, the programmable controller (PLC) and intelligent sensor technology, flexible manufacturing cell and flexible manufacturing systems (FMC, FMS) and other advanced processing control technology, can greatly improve the production process of flexible, automation, intelligent degree, improve the production efficiency, improve labor condition, reduce the manufacturing cost and energy consumption, realize the efficient, reliable, and many varieties, batch production requirements, meet customers' growing personalized, diversified needs.
The third level: the systematic realization of enterprise internal management by computer system.This level of work includes the enterprise business management information system of construction (MIS, MRP, MRP Ⅱ), business process reengineering (BPR), enterprise resource planning (ERP) management, business intelligence (BI), customer resource management system (CRM), product commerce (CPC), product data management (PDM), supply chain management (SCM), design for manufacturing/assembly (DFM/A) and office automation system (OA), etc.Through to the enterprise production and business operation activities and manpower, financial resources, logistics, production, supply, sales and service of each link such as information management, straighten out the enterprise internal logistics, cash flow, information flow, realize the integration of the enterprise resources, optimize combination and the comprehensive utilization, and set up and information systems that meet the needs of enterprise management and organization mode, form the rapid market response, the operation of the service quality and efficient management mechanism.
The fourth dimension: using the Internet to conduct e-commerce.Through the Internet, enterprises conduct e-business (EC) (including online advertising, online marketing, online purchasing, network services, etc.) to reduce the intermediate links, reduce the cost of sales and improve the competitiveness of the market.
The informationization of machinery manufacturing enterprises should not only be informationized, but also include product informationization (i.e., information technology in products).Now, more and more, the enterprise informationization is regarded as the management informationization, in fact, for the mechanical manufacturing enterprises, product informatization is also very important content.Imagine that in the case of the integration of information technology and mechanical manufacturing technology, the depth and breadth of penetration, the information technology can not be integrated into the mechanical products and how to meet the requirements of informatization.In recent years, the informatization of machinery manufacturing industry has made great progress, especially in the popularization and application of CAD technology.This can be seen from 166 companies surveyed in 2002.The survey companies, 100% of the adoption of CAD technology, of which 63 percent of the enterprise product CAD chart rate reached 100%.However, in general, the application level of CAD technology is not high enough. Only 16% of the 166 enterprises surveyed have conducted structural optimization, and only 6% of the simulation designs are carried out.The proportion of information technology in the product is still relatively low.Enterprise informatization has brought obvious effect to the enterprise.The survey of 166 enterprises, the application of CAD technology, shorten the design cycle in more than 40% of enterprises accounted for 76%, is generally believed that the CAD technology to improve the quality of the product design, improve product performance to have fairly good effect.From the application of MRP Ⅱ/ERP successful enterprise, its efficiency is also very obvious, such as purchasing cycle can be shortened by 60%, 25% less inventory capital takes up, cost accounting work efficiency more than 50 times, etc.But look from the current manufacturing enterprise application, MRP Ⅱ/ERP application is not wide, combined with enterprise management mode reform aren't good enough, the success rate is not high enough.The results of the informatization of machinery manufacturing are not ideal, and there are many deviations in the main reasons.
"Not yet" -- China's manufacturing sector has not yet been on the information stage;"Cup of water salary" - the enterprise's current problems are numerous, informationization can not solve the enterprise's difficulties;"Ignoring the foundation" -- a lack of necessary understanding on the basis of the management of informatization;"Technology supremacy" -- to treat informationization as merely technical work rather than global work;"Blind imitation" -- simply imitate the success of other enterprise informatization, and follow the example."The pursuit of big" -- blindly pursuing high levels and big input, thinking that the bigger the project, the more productive;"Exhibition level" - to use informatization as a demonstration of enterprise level rather than to improve efficiency;"Exclusion of the outside brain" - the software that is considered only by the enterprise itself is the most suitable for the enterprise;"New bottle old wine" - applying advanced computer-assisted management tools to the old management model;"Each party is a political party" -- a set of departments within the enterprise, lack of coordination and resource sharing;"Stuck in the past" - think the informatization of our company has achieved results, leading in the industry;"Once and for all" - the already built information system is quite advanced and will not fall behind in a few years.
All of these influences the enterprise informatization depth and advance.Spend quite a lot of quite a number of businesses, information, and are not to be effective, the key is not according to the reality of the enterprise, no changes in the mode of production of the enterprise, not combined with business process reengineering.
The mode and technology of modern manufacturing system are endless and endless, and we can often hear more than 40 kinds of manufacturing patterns and techniques.With these models and techniques, the key is to grasp the essence and make the best of it.With the development of technology, will roll out some new patterns and technologies, but its fundamental, nothing more than a lean, agile, efficient and win-win, share, coordination, finally realizes the promotion enterprise's core competitiveness.
To sum up the success and failure of enterprise informatization, the enterprise informatization should be effective and the following 56 words must be carried out:
Leadership attention, full input;Overall planning and step-by-step implementation;Do your best and pay attention to the results;Tracking trends, applicable to advanced;People first, training first;Integration ideas, resource sharing;Network construction to ensure security.
In the context of globalization, the implementation of the informationization of machinery manufacturing will make the mechanical manufacturing industry follow the new industrialization path.In this process, the promotion and evolution of machinery manufacturing will also be promoted.
The mechanical manufacturing industry is the carrier of the high and new technological achievements into the real productive forces, and it also contains high technology industry.Machinery manufacturing industry to absorb and blend in high and new technology, make the mechanical manufacturing industry to achieve industrial upgrading, at the same time there are quite a part to the high and new technology in mechanical manufacturing industry evolution, this is a trend in the development of science and technology.Through ascension and evolution of Chinese mechanical manufacturing industry, people will no longer be the original concept of resource consumption and large intensity of labor, more poor working conditions and low technical content, environmental impact and the high added value, labor-intensive industries.
China's machinery manufacturing industry has been promoted through the informationization, and it will be a reality for several generations of mechanical manufacturing workers to strive for the goal of revitalizing China's machinery manufacturing industry.